Ancient Remedies in a Modern World

Ayurvedic Scrubs

Microbead free exfoliation made with ayurvedic herbs


Ancient remedies are as relevant today as they were thousands of years ago. Arguably with the increasing knowledge that artificial and chemical ingredients can be detrimental not only to the skin but for general wellbeing as well. What is put in the skin is absorbed and is an outer protective covering which includes face, body and scalp.
One of the main reasons for Ayurvedic skin care products and protocols taking the spa and beauty worlds by storm is the availability of numerous potent skin rasayanas in the Ayurvedic herbal treasury. Skin rasayanas (rasa – essence, ayana – enter) are so called because of their ability to deliver penetrating holistic benefits to the skin without side effects or the damage caused by a fragmented approach to skin health. Whatever your skin type or needs for balance, there are Ayurvedic skin rasayanas that can help. Further, when used in combination, as is the Ayurvedic tradition, you derive the added benefit of synergy, with the combined formulation being exponentially more beneficial than any single herb in the formulation. These rasayanas should be seen as nutritional supplements to provide support to the skin- face, body and hair in topical formulations for the skin where they deliver their benefits trans-dermally. It should be noted that true ayurvedic formulations for internal or external use are only effective when used in combination with other herbs to help alleviate or balance a problem.

The therapeutic value of the rasayanas is maximized when they are used in natural topical formulations in combination with emollients such as milk, cream, yogurt or honey, exfoliating substances such as natural clay, salts, grain or lentil flours, vegetable base oils, and floral waters or pure vegetable oils to act as the yogavahi – the carrier of the healing values of the herbs to the cells and tissues. Both the herbs themselves, as well as the other ingredients in the formulations, can be chosen specifically for a skin type, or balanced to suit all skin types. Formulations that are tridoshic – suitable for all skin types – generally have many more herbs and ingredients to avoid aggravating an individual dosha (body type). The herbs should not be exposed to high temperatures, and should be of high quality and fresh. Formulations that add herbs to chemical bases or that contain artificial preservatives or fragrances are not as effective in maintaining skin health and appearance because the herbs in such formulations are not as active or have been processed. Just as processed food is said to have less nutrients than fresh food
Vata skin, space or air predominant, is delicate and tends to be naturally dry. Skin rasayanas that benefit Vata skin are mainly nourishing, with subsidiary properties such as enhancing natural glow or purifying the skin. Such herbs also balance Vata dosha in the physiology, calming and settling the mind and supporting stress management and mind/body coordination so that the ravages of worry and excessive mental pressure do not show up on the skin as fine lines, sagging and bags under the eyes. Nourishment and deep, ongoing rehydration are essential if Vata skin is to look healthy, plump and youthful.

Brahmi (Bacopa), Shatavari (Indian Asparagus), Amla (Indian Gooseberry), Gotu kola (Indian Pennywort) and Ashwagandha (Winter Cherry) are potent Vata-pacifying skin rasayanas that help support skin elasticity, moisture balance, texture and radiance. They are ultra-nourishing, helping to regenerate skin cells and keep skin looking youthful. Triphala, made from equal parts of Indian Gooseberry, Beleric Myrobalan and Chebulic Myrobalan, are also excellent for Vata skin because it combines nourishment with a gentle detoxifying effect that enhances skin clarity. Topical formulations for Vata skin infuses these herbs with nourishing oils using traditional methodology that make the formulation effective.

Pitta skin, fire predominant, is sensitive and is generally neither dry nor oily. Skin rasayanas that support the health of Pitta skin are mainly cooling and soothing, with some element of nourishing and purifying as well. These rasayanas also balance Pitta in the physiology, balancing the emotions and strengthening the heart/mind coordination so that the inner serenity and emotional balance are reflected on the skin as a healthy glow and brightness, and angry eruptions, redness are avoided by the inclusion of herbs that help constrict capilleries, cool and calm the skin. Pitta skin also requires protection, because it tends to be more photosensitive than other types of skin.

Amla, Bhringaraj (Eclipta alba), Kumari (aloe vera), White Sandalwood, Red Sandalwood and Lajawanti (Mimosa Pudica) are considered the pre-eminent Pitta-pacifying skin rasayanas. They draw out excess heat, support the skin’s natural ability to withstand the ravages of the environment, and keep skin clear and healthy. They nourish sensitive skin tissue without irritating it. Triphala, Manjistha (Indian Madder) and Neem are also helpful for Pitta skin because they purify and clarify the skin without depleting it of moisture or youthfulness. Topical formulations for Pitta skin combine these herbs with soothing oils.

Kapha skin, water or earth predominant, is oily, and tends to be congested and susceptible to attracting dust and grime. Skin rasayanas for Kapha skin are therefore first purifiers that detoxify and clarify, with subsidiary properties of being nourishing and rejuvenating. These herbs also balance Kapha dosha in the physiology, invigorating the mind and body so that the skin appears alive and vital, and reducing the congestion that dulls Kapha skin.

Neem, Manjistha (Indian Madder), Triphala, Tulsi (Holy Basil), Cloves and Turmeric are potent Kapha-balancing skin rasayanas. They help detoxify the skin while nourishing it at the same time. They balance oil content in the skin and enhance clarity and brightness. Because of their effective detoxification properties, these rasayanas keep Kapha skin squeaky clean, so that it stays healthy and naturally radiant. Topical formulations for Kapha skin combine these herbs with light oils.

Tridoshic formulations which means for all skin types draw on skin rasayanas from each group to offer the combined benefits of nourishment, detoxification, protection and balanced temperature.
Ayurvedic formulations in the form Lotions and Creams do not have water in them, therefore they appear to be thick in consistency. The base is generally oil in which herbs are infused for maximum potency and beeswax. The importance of this is that they should be viewed as concentrates and can be made lighter on application by using wet fingertips to massage the them in. Massaging the cream or lotion helps the skin to absorb the goodness and impart the benefits resulting in healthy skin.
Some of the most popular herbs used in beauty care their uses:
Turmeric (Haldi) – Curucuma Longa:
Turmeric is mainly used to ensure glowing, bright skin. Turmeric face masks are extensively available for their skin-friendly treatment that prevents bacterial infection. Turmeric pastes cure pigmentation, maintain the pH factor and are constantly applied on the neck, face and over-all body to enhance the complexion and brightness of skin.
White Sandalwood (Chandan) – Santalum Album:
The external application of chandan is through oil, powder and paste derived from the herb. The aromatic essence of chandan has made it a favourite of the beauty industry. It possesses various soothing qualities that effectively work to improve skin ailments and alleviate allergies. Herbal face masks and scrubs made from sandalwood powder cleanses our skin thoroughly and brings a healthy glow to it. Chandan has cooling properties.
Red Sandalwood (Rakta Chandana)- Pterocarpus santalinus
Red sandalwood powder which has antiseptic properties and hence, it is used for healing the wounds. It is also calming and cooling. Red Sandalwood is used in face tonics, creams and lotions.
Neem – Azadirachta indica :
This herb is used as a skin cleanser, acne, psoriasis and eczema and to treat common hair problems like dandruff.
Basil (tulsi) – Ocimum sanctum:
• Effective against scars and blemishes. Basil has anti inflammatory and antiseptic properties. Basil leaves contains many health benefits such as eugenol, citronellol, linalool, citral, limonene and terpineol. These compounds are known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Basil herb contains exceptionally high levels of beta-carotene, vitamin A, cryptoxanthin, lutein and zea-xanthin. These compounds help act as protective scavengers against oxygen-derived free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in aging.
Aloe Vera:
Aloe Vera is used in many skin care formulations. It heals skin irritations and scars. The primal effect of this herb comes from its soothing properties.

Ayurvedic Skin Health related to Ayurvedic Body Types

Ayurvedic Skin Health related to Ayurvedic Body Types

Collagen, along with Keratin and Elastin are proteins which are found in skin and hair, all give the skin it’s firmness, youth, strength and elasticity.

Herbs that boost collagen used in ayurvedic skin care, include Aloe Vera, Bilberry, Calendula, Eucommia, Gotu Kola, Hawthorn and Horsetail. Aloe Vera is said to have a high content of collagen protein. Animal studies show that Aloe helps to heal wounds by increasing collagen production. When using Aloe, collagen production may increase by up to 90%.

Other names for Bilberry may be Sara Roga ,nivarini, Indian lilac, heal all and village pharmacy. Marigolds were originally flowers of the Calendula family.S anskrit/Indian name for calendula include zergul or Genda. Eucommia has Chinese name du Zhong and is most effective for kidney and liver diseases. Gotu kola is also known by other names, including Brahmi, centella, Indian pennywort, marsh penny, thick leaved Pennywort, Marsh penny, thick leaved pennywort, white rot, hydrocotyle, Indian water navelwort and talepetrako. Gotu kola has been used in European countries to promote healing of burns and other skin wounds. Gotu kola herbs are also known as Centella asiatica, Indian pennywort, Brahmi (possibly like your Brahmi oil) or spade leaf. It is an anti-inflammatory, anti tumor, anti rheumatic type of herb among other medical uses. Hawthorn is also known by many other names including acacia, azalea, buttercup, camellia, daffodil, dahlia, jasmine, sweet pea, wisteria and water lily. Hawthorn is a source of antioxidants, and has been used to treat cardiac insufficiency. Horsetail is a plant. It is used for kidney and bladder problems, weak bones, brittle hair, skin and fingernails among other medical uses. Horsetail has silica in it, and can have antioxidant properties.

Most doctors believe taking collagen supplements is not effective because the collagen molecule is too large for the skin and parts of the body to absorb. Collagen has a high molecular weight of about 300,000 Dalton’s. Hydrolyzed collagen molecules are however, small enough (average 5000 Dalton’s) to be absorbed by the skin and intestines and then into the blood stream. The skin is made up of about 80% type 1, collagen so a supplement rich in type 1 collagen, or a supplement like a herb that encourages the brain and body to produce its own collagen, is best to use.

According to Ayurveda, a number of factors determine skin health and youthfulness. These factors include proper moisture balance (Kapha in balance), effective functioning of the metabolic mechanisms that coordinate all the various chemical and hormonal reactions of the skin (Pitta in balance), and efficient circulation of blood and nutrients to the different layers of the skin (Vata in balance).

Kapha type people can be cold, have a slower metabolism and can have oily skin and hair and have excessive moisture particularly if there are dominant or excess out of balance Kapha. Therefore proper moisture balance and Kapha in balance would require opposite qualities to Kapha qualities like dry, light and warm diet, Ayurvedic products, lifestyle and environment. When moisture in the skin is suitably balanced between not too wet and not too dry, the skin may look it’s best. It should be remembered that Kapha people are made from more Earth and water than other elements. Pitta people have more fire and water elements and to some extent fire and water qualities balance each other. Heat is both a by product of metabolism and a form of energy that influences the speed at which metabolism works. Pitta has the heat of the fire element in it, and as stated above heat can influence the metabolism. Higher body temperatures do speed up metabolism. Cooler core body temperatures appear to lower metabolic rate. When Pitta is in balance the metabolism is more effective and efficient and the various chemical and hormonal reactions of the skin are better coordinated leading to better looking skin. Predominantly Vata people have more qualities of the air and space elements in them and are responsible for movement in the body just as the air element that Vata is made out of, is responsible for movement. The atoms and molecules that make up the gas air, move about more in the atmosphere than the atoms and molecules that make up liquid, water and solid earth. Movement in the body includes the movement of air in and out of the lungs and blood as in respiration. Blood circulation is movement of the blood through the body. Blood circulation, transportation of food nutrients to various parts of the body including cells, gases and waste products are associated with blood movement and hence are a Vata activity. Dry skin can be associated with excess or dominant Vata Dosha, as can uneven skin tone, pigmentation and blemishes on the skin and hair loss which are also associated with poor blood circulation. When Vata is out of balance there is poor blood circulation resulting in cold extremities such as skin, hands fingers and feet even on warm days, swelling in the body, Oedema, blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. When Vata is out of balance nutrients and hormones do not reach target cells in the mind and body,like the skin,and wastes accumulate in the tissue. Vata is to some extent responsible for the pulsation of the heart and the circulation of the blood, along with the nutrients absorbed  from the gut. Vata is also supposed to govern all circulation, transportation and communication in the physiology, including breathing and  the flow of nerve impulses from the brain. Good balanced metabolism, moisture etc. leads to overall better health and skin and hair is better when the doshas are balanced. Thus the efficient circulation of the blood and nutrients to the different layers of the skin requires Vata to be in balance. Respiration involves air moving in and out of lungs and such movement is part of Vata activity.

Blood circulation is movement of blood and again anything due to movement in the body can be due to Vata Dosha. Blood circulation, transportation of food nutrients to cells, gases and waste products are associated with blood movement and hence are a Vata activity. Poor blood circulation is one of the results of excess,out of balance Vata or Kapha doshas. Vata is also predominantly made from the space/ether element,and spaces in the body such as spaces between cells are a Vata activity.

For Pitta skin good sunscreens for protection from the hot sun (Pitta is made from the fire and water elements and the fire element has attributes of warmth, so when the sun increases the warmth of Pitta Dosha people, Pitta becomes excess out of balance Pitta, which can have bad effects on health and condition of skin and hair),and good facial skin oils should be used daily. Tanning treatment and therapies that expose delicate sensitive skin for extended periods of time to steam/heat should be avoided.

For Kapha skin a daily warm oil massage and cleansing of skin with gentle exfoliation should be done.

For Vata skin to stay youthful, skin care products that can nourish and hydrate drier Vata skin should be used, otherwise it may be susceptible to wrinkles and premature aging. It should be remembered that most people have all of the three doshas in them, usually with one doshas higher in proportion than the other doshas. It is said a Pitta person would have a higher proportion of Pitta dosha in them, but may also have lower proportions of Vata and Kapha doshas in them. In  Ayurveda skin health two types of therapy are included for anti aging treatment, namely promotive (Urjaskara) and curative (vyadhihara).

Urjaskara or Rasayana is that which brings optimum quality of the body tissues due to which it provides both physical and mental health, prevents aging and disease and thus enables us to live for a longer period of youthfulness.

A healthy person is known by the vigorous Urja(energy) he carries in himself to sustain life, to survive the struggles of existence and ultimately coming out as the best creature of this universe. The diet regimens, practices enriching the urja or vigor of a person are known as urjaskara. Urjuskara or Rasayana means causing strength of the body, sense organs mind and soul i.e. boosting bala or rejuvenating the vitality.

Medicines which help in protection and preservation of health in an already healthy person are called Swasthasya urjaskara type of medicines. These medicines help in prevention of diseases and provide long standing immunity and strength to fight off illness and preserve health. They are predominantly preventative and partly curative in nature.

Rasayana is a branch of Ayurveda that deals with the promotion of positive health by eliminating the ill effects of old age, thereby improving the quality of life.

Whether you go to an Ayurvedic internal medicine specialist or an obstetrician, or other specialist they will take both a preventative and curative approach.

Preventative medicine approach seeks to create and maintain health and longevity within the individual. It emphasises defining each persons Prakriti (or three Dosha influenced constitution) and creating daily and periodic regimens to support that prakturi and keep it in balance.

These health routines focus on everything from Ayurvedic products, diet, exercise, herbal therapies, massage, meditation, social behaviour and positive relationships.

Curative medicine seeks to heal an illness, which may be achieved by one or more of the following approaches:

*internal measures including Shodhana (Detoxification)and shaman (methods used to improve quality of life and reduce symptoms and suffering by palliative care).Internal medicine (kaya-chikitsa) focuses on doshic balance and imbalance, metabolic function and digestion.

*external measures including Snehana (oil treatments) and svedana (steam therapy using herbal steam,which vaporises and extracts the chemicals in the herbs)and use of herbal creams and pastes.External Ayurvedic medicine includes oleation (snehanam),sudation (swedana), bath, medical gargles, application of creams or paste, powders and other physiotherapeutic measures as an adjunct or addition to internal medicine.

One of the unique, and most beneficial aspects of the Ayurvedic home cleanse is the technique of oleation-which is essentially the internal and external oiling of the body.

Sesame oil is highly recommended but if that feels too heavy or too warming sunflower, almond or coconut oil can be used. Alternatively a specific abhyanga Herbal oil like soothing oil for fire and water influenced Pitta Dosha, calming oil for air and space influenced Vata Dosha or stimulating oil for earth and water influenced lethargic Kapha Dosha. Sudation is the process of the sweat glands of the skin secreting sweat or an salty fluid. Sweating is a homeostatic process, that is it helps the body maintain an internal equilibrium or Dosha balance.

*surgical methods, including removal of tissues, organs and harmful growths.

Conventional medicine focuses more on the curative aspect of illness, rather than also preventative aspect of illness.

The health of the following three types of body tissue are especially reflected in the skin: nutritional fluid or plasma (Rasa),blood (Rakta) and muscle (mamsa). To be effective, an anti aging application has to provide support to all of these areas. Rasa supports all the body tissues, particularly keeping the skin healthy, rakta in association with liver function helps detoxify the skin of toxins, while mamsa muscle provides firmness to the skin.

When the heat is on, Silver comes to our rescue

Ayurvedic Skin Care for sensitive skin

Cooling and Calming

Summer is epitomised by the Ayurvedic Dosha, Pitta. Pitta is governed by Fire and Water. For those who have high Pitta, the heat can create problems with the skin like increased perspiration, inflammation, redness, sunburn, hyper pigmentation, and increased production of oil on the skin and scalp. Vata types bask in the heat and could not be happier – getting a tan without any issue and Kapha types tolerate the heat with some sensitivity.

For Pitta types who are very sensitive to the heat, it is important to keep the skin cool, calm and soothed. It’s easy to keep it radiant and fresh, cooled and hydrated with our famous pure Silver Collection …. Toner, Gel and Day Cream. If you have an OmVeda Salon or Spa near you, you can also opt for a Silver Facial – highly recommended.

Extremely soothing, our Silver products use food grade Silver Leaf and Silver Bhasam to nurture, cool, soothe and rejuvenate, without blocking the pores and, at the same time, helps prolong the youthful appearance of the most sensitive skin.

Silver has an awesome list of benefits like regeneration of cells for a softer, supple and a calmer complexion. It relieves and cools the tight and uncomfortable sensation often associated with inflamed complexions. In addition, pure Silver also possesses anti-bacterial and anti-septic properties. With many strings to its bow, it can also relieve sunburn and acne.

It also has the power to restore the natural pH balance (reduce acidity, which is what makes the skin sensitive), returning moisture and evening out tone, tackling concerns that often show with Pitta imbalances, which in general are of an inflammatory nature.

Try keeping your Silver Toner in the fridge and use a cotton round to compress over the face and neck or soak cotton rounds in Silver Toner, squeeze out and place in a bowl) to chill in the fridge or simply use a couple of ice cubes. It will help to constrict capillaries which in turn reduces redness. Mix a little Silver Gel with our Day Cream and treat the skin to a very gentle massage.

Did you know that Pitta types are ruled by fire and water? Water extinguishes the fire and fire makes the water boil.

Excess Pitta creates excess heat in the body and is reflected visibly on the skin, scalp or eyes as an inflammatory condition. Those experiencing excess Pitta can have red eyes, or redness on the skin and scalp which is highly sensitive.
Traditionally used in rejuvenation therapy and known to promote strength and stamina, Silver is an integral part of Ayurveda as is the use of healing metals in their purest form, for example pure Silver, not sterling Silver. Pure Silver goes through a very special process which can take months. It is made into a Varak (soft leaf) which is commonly used on sweets, or in a powder form, called Bhasma.

HAIR CARE

Ayurvedic Hair Mask for Hair Loss

NEELINI HAIR MASK

While its main actions are to prevent hair loss and hair thinning, promote growth and combat premature greying, this purely Ayurvedic herbal mask offers many other benefits for both the hair and scalp. It also addresses dandruff, strengthens hair roots, helps the hair maintain and boost its colour while it nourishes dry, split ends and reduces scalp irritations and itching.

Restoring and nurturing hair and scalp, its magical line up of Ayurvedic herbs is an all-in-one treatment and the secret to lush, long and healthy locks.

This traditional recipe comes in the form of a fine Ayurvedic herbal powder that is mixed into a smooth, spreadable paste with yoghurt and applied to the scalp and dry hair.

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SKIN CARE

Ayurvedic Skin Care for dry skin

24 K Gold Range

Gilded Beauty

Not just for adorning fingers or wrists, 24K Gold as a key ingredient in skincare has amazing benefits. Gold has been used since ancient times to preserve beauty and youth. It is reported that Cleopatra slept in a pure gold mask!

From an Ayurvedic perspective, Gold stimulates circulation thereby helping build healthy tissues. It has warming properties vis Silver which is cooling. And, as it’s a Rasayana (meaning it rejuvenates), it facilitates the removal of toxins, helps avoid collagen breakdown and subsequent loss of elasticity to firm the skin, provide intense nourishment while it brightens and enlivens the complexion.

Giving mature, dull, sallow and tired complexions a new lease on life, our precious Gold products use food grade Gold Leaf which is readily, easily and safely absorbed to work at a deeper level.

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SKINCARE

MAINTAINING A YOUTHFUL GLOW

Thanks to Mother Nature, we have some of the best pro-ageing ingredients for those who prefer the natural path to beauty and a glowing complexion. All our formulas are rich in Vitamins, minerals and nutrients that have been developed to work with the skin.

In addition to maintenance of the skin, regular exercise, eating a well-balanced diet and drinking plenty of water are all important.

Developing regular skincare habits early on keep the complexion looking beautiful, balanced and vibrant. Book regular maintenance facials with your favourite OmVeda Therapist as both can help delay the need for artificial procedures later on.

investing in an effective range of products and practicing good skincare with a morning and night-time routine goes a long way in keeping our skin healthy and vibrant.

During the colder months we may want to add more nourishing elements to our everyday mix. At this time maybe switch to a creamier cleanser, more richly textured creams and add a facial oil to our routine for example.

Cleanse morning and night:
Takes care of debris, grime and make-up. Cleansing at night is particularly important as leaving make up on overnight can cause breakouts and dryness. Our Aloe Cleanser is perfect for dry skins and removing make up and it leaves the complexion hydrated and smooth. An effective cleanser for oily and combination types is our Cream Soap or Neem Facial Cleanser that respects the pH of the skin and does not leave behind a tight or uncomfortable feel. Sensitive and irritated skins, Sandalwood Cleanser.

Exfoliate regularly:
To keep pores free of impurities and the skin bright and beautiful, exfoliation is a must. Once a week for drier complexions and twice per week for oilier types keeps dullness at bay, clears away dead skin build-up and also helps our products penetrate and work more effectively. Avoid aggressive exfoliators that can damage the skin. Dry skins love our Walnut or Gold Scrubs and, oiler skins can benefit from our Scrub Grains, neither of which contain microbeads.

Add a Mask:
As they’re the perfect add-on to our skincare routine and to address specific concerns … helping to hydrate or draw out impurities. For oilier skins, our clay-based Protex Mask is a great one to purify and another is our Fruit Mask which is loaded with Citrus and healing Zinc. Both can reduce visible and clogged pores and absorb excess oils. Now some news that you may not have known, our Masks also work to gently exfoliate the surface of the skin as they’re designed to be removed with a little water which is worked in circular motions. Afterwards the excess can then be rinsed away. For skins on the dry side, our Diamond Mask is rich in Fuller’s Earth and Diamond Ash to rejuvenate and renew.

Moisturise, Moisturise, Moisturise:
Applying a good day cream keeps the skin looking hydrated and dewy. A night cream is vital as, when we sleep, the body goes into repair mode. In turn our skin is more responsive and receptive to the active ingredients in our products, making it more conducive to rejuvenation.

When applying our day and night creams take a little extra time to gently massage into both face and neck as this will help keep the skin firm, lush and soft and, at the same time improve circulation and send nutrients deep within the cells. Our day and night creams are designed a little differently and are a little thicker in texture. To get the best from them, dot the face … cheeks, chin, neck and forehead, dampen fingertips and boost the massage in with Saffron Oil.

The eyes have it:
Squinting, smiling, sun damage and constant movement can cause finer lines and deeper wrinkles, not to mention dark circles. As the skin around the eyes is quite fragile it’s where issues first start to show. Everyday application of an Eye Cream is a beauty essential to keep the area smooth, hydrated and soft and, it can also help protect from further damage. As versatile as it is vital, our Eye Cream can also be applied to the lips and around the mouth.

Limit exposure to the sun (yes even during Winter):
Exposing our skin to UV rays can damage the collagen and elastin fibres and these fibres are the ones that keep our skin firm. UV rays can break down these fibres which leads to wrinkles and accelerates the ageing process. Get into the habit of protecting the skin with our natural protective bases like our Sandalwood Protective Base or Natural Sun Protection. Use a SPF on top for further protection if you are out in the sun for a long time. Of course, in high summer, wear a hat and take cover in the shade whenever possible.